2018 Blast Furnace Inner Lining Maintenance Use Gunning Material , Find Complete Details about 2018 Blast Furnace Inner Lining Maintenance Use Gunning Material,Blast Furnace Gunning Material from Supplier or Manufacturer-Zhengzhou Sijihuo Refractory Co., Ltd. \end{align}. The situation can be illustrated by the evaporation of water in a closed room filled with air. In which “solidification form” is pig iron mostly tapped. Due to the reduction of the solidificatoin point by diffused carbon into the reduced iron, it begins to melt in the hotter zones of the blast furnace. The Blast Furnace is a heat based machine using solely for the creation of Steel. This combustion is very strongly exothermic, i.e. In a blast furnace, fuel (coke), ores, and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward. Lining thickness be obtained from registration re-sult and is illustrated in Sec. The oxygen of the blast burns coke to CO and several combustion zones, one in front of each tuyere, exist in the tuyere zone. Crude steel production begins with the reduction process, where the iron ore reacts with carbon sources inside the blast furnace. New linings and manual repairs: dense shotcrete products (REFRAJETCRETE ® LC), self-flowing backfilling compounds (REFRASELFCAST ®) Hot repairs with a gunning robot: gunning (REFRAJET ®), cement-free shotcreting (REFRAJETCRETE ® Nanobond) Start-up protection (manual … The first blast furnaces appeared in the 14th century and produced one ton per day. At this temperature, the filled charge are first dried and preheated. One of the aims is to help reduce CO2 emissions – both at the company’s own plant and around the world by marketing the technology globally. But precisely this carbon monoxide is necessary for the reduction of iron oxides and must be produced in sufficient quantities. The blast furnace module is part of the steel manufacturing course. The blast furnace uses coke, iron ore and limestone to produce pig iron. are also contained in small quantities in the pig iron. At lower temperatures, the reduction takes place indirectly with the help of the carbon monoxide gas formed during combustion (indirect reduction). Blast furnace gunning process. Thanks, Your email address will not be published. The refractory lining is cooled to further enhance the protection against the dispatch … The carbon ($$C$$) is oxidized to carbon monoxide ($$CO$$) by the absorption of oxygen ($$O$$). Required fields are marked *. In the same way, there is also a temperature-dependent equilibrium between the reaction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and the corresponding reverse reaction of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. The carbon monoxide gas ($$CO$$) is oxidized to carbon dioxide ($$CO_2$$) by absorbing the oxygen contained in the iron oxide ($$O$$). This module introduces the learner to the operation of the blast furnace for the transformation of iron ore to molten iron. 3 Fe_2O_3 &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ 2~Fe_3O_4 &&+ ~CO ~~~~~~ \text{(hematite} \rightarrow \text{magnetite)} \\[5px] Taphole mixes, runner mixes, assembly parts or preshapes (for example skimmer, tipping trough) are heavily-used refractory products in the production of pig steel. Over time, a balance between the water that is still liquid and the water contained in the air will develop. The enrichment of solid iron with carbon in a temperature range between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also referred to as carburisation. gunning process in blast furnace in steel plant..... Tibetan Music, Healing Music, Relaxation Music, Chakra, Relaxing Music for Stress Relief, 2853C - Duration: 6:00:22. If the iron ores, which have not yet been reduced, move further down in the blast furnace, then the carbon can also directly reduce the iron oxides contained in the ore due to the high temperatures. \end{align}. The Blast Furnace is a members-only minigame situated in Keldagrim for smelting bars.The furnace here only requires half as much coal when smelting usually, so it can be useful when smelting the ores that require more coal.. The blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process is currently the dominant process for providing steelmaking raw materials worldwide. Stopping the blast furnace and lowering the burden Opening of both doors (for the introduction of the robot) and probe holes located in the top (for fixing of the robot) Gunning of the insulating plug Assembly of the Giro Gun robot trough geometry and cooling system. The carburization lowers the solidification temperature of the iron! Published July 11, 2020, It’s hard to find knowledgeable folks on this topic, however you sound like you understand what you’re speaking about! Further accompanying elements are listed below, although the composition may vary considerably depending on the type of pig iron. 8. The flow rate of molten metal and slag through the trough system increase many times in case of larger blast furnaces. The corresponding chemical reactions are as follows: \begin{align} At the latest, however, when the melting process occurs in the deeper and hotter zones of the blast furnace, iron ores can be almost completely reduced. Introduction The recent development of blast furnace manufacturing process forwards to minimize frequently refractories repairing and reduce the time of installation. Depending on the temperature, the air can absorb a certain amount of water. blast furnaces no.1 & 2, thyssenKrupp csa siderúrgica do atlântico, brazil. With a relatively low silicon content, on the other hand, cementite precipitation is preferred when the pig iron solidifies. Nevertheless, the temperature in this indirect reduction zone of 400 °C to a maximum of 800 °C is too low to melt the reduced iron! at the wet-gunning refractories. This type of solidification is therefore also referred to as stable solidification. \label{direkt} Blast furnaces reduce iron ore through a process combining coke and limestone. With a daily production of 10,000 tons, this results in a coke input of 3,500 tons per day! This produces iron carbide $$Fe_3C$$, also known as cementite. In the melting zone the iron begins to melt and forms strongly carbon-containing pig iron! In the indirect reduction zone, the iron oxide contained in the iron ores is reduced by carbon monoxide gas, whereby the iron ores are not melted! The grey pig iron (“cast pig iron”) serves as a raw material for foundries to produce various types of cast iron or cast iron materials. The blast furnace process is characterised by the variety and complexity of the phenomena of gas dynamics, charge transfer, heat transfer, recovery, softening, and other phenomena. If you continue to use this website, we will assume your consent and we will only use personalized ads that may be of interest to you. The direct reduction takes place in the temperature zone between approx. When the liquid pig iron solidifies, the silicon content in particular determines whether the dissolved carbon precipitates in its pure form as graphite ($$C$$) in the microstructure or as iron carbide ($$Fe_3C$$, cementite). By absorbing the carbon, the solidification point of the iron is reduced from 1536 °C to approx. All these reactions are endothermic. 2. \label{indirekt} This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: The iron in the processed ores must be dissolved out by chemical processes. 1600 °C. \label{aufkohlen} Due to the graphite in the stable solidified microstructure, the fracture surface of the pig iron appears matt-grey. ing points taking from the speciﬁc geometry of the blast . With metastable solidification, the iron carbide compound cementite is formed (white pig iron)! However, the heat released is sufficient to supply heat for the first two endothermic reactions. a blast furnace is different due to the very nature of its geometry and also pyrometallurgical process occurring at different stages (see adjacent Blast Furnace figures). furnace. CO 2 capture from the overall flue gas stream. FeO &~+~ CO &&\rightarrow~ Fe &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(wüstite} \rightarrow \text{iron)} \\[5px] FeO &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ Fe &&+ ~CO ~~~~~~ \text{(wüstite} \rightarrow \text{iron)} \\[5px] Iron ores with lower iron content such as taconite are first processed to concentrate the iron level and drive off volatile impurities. The overall balance thus remains exothermic. The blast furnace process has been the primary method for producing iron for many decades. The hearth zone is … In contrast, graphite is a thermodynamically stable compound that has survived even with long annealing times. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. \end{align}. Iron Making in Mini Blast Furnace (MBF) The Blast Furnace ironmaking process had, until recently, been the unchallenged method of making hot metal on a large scale. This requires an element that binds oxygen more strongly than iron. The chemical processes are discussed in more detail in the chapter on blast furnace processes. The project realized in August, during capital repair of blast furnace № 5 NLMK, included full service range, from the cleaning of collapsed brick lining until the restoration of protecting layer on the wall and pipe valves by gunning. As long as your consent is not given, no ads will be displayed. For this reason, the iron ores are also processed as porous as possible in the form of sinter and pellets. Blast furnace produces pig iron from iron ore by reducing action of a carbon at a high temperature in the presence of fluxing agent such as limestone. Even though equipment is improved and higher production rates can be achieved, the processes inside the blast furnace remain the same. The refractory lining's properties are enhanced through cooling to protect the refractory lining from excess heat. In the preheating zone the charge is preheated and dried! Modern blast furnaces require around 350 kg of coke to melt one tonne of pig iron. The absorbed carbon remains dissolved in the molten iron. This is the reason why pig iron has a relatively high carbon content. The equilibrium thus shifts in the direction of the evaporation process. It is usually cast in small ingots and offered to foundries for melting down with other materials (charging). Due to the higher density of the pig iron, the pig iron can be cut off at the lowest point of the blast furnace (called tapping). Graphite precipitation is preferred for high silicon concentrations. 3 Fe &~+~ C &&\rightarrow~ Fe_3C  \\[5px] This makes the ore processing described above necessary. Figure: Coke. More information about this in the privacy policy. In the direct reduction zone, carbon takes part directly in the reduction of iron oxides! & C + O_2  \rightarrow CO_2 ~~~ \text{(exotherm)} \\[5px] The iron ore is dressed or crushed into 0.5-1 in. Iron is made by reacting iron ore (iron oxide and impurities), coke (a reductant) and limestone (CaCO 3) in a blast furnace. \end{align}. \end{align}. with energy absorption, so that the temperature of the gas drops to about 1700 °C. Now the inner ore layers also come into contact with the carbon or the carbon monoxide gas and can be reduced to iron and then carburized. From a maximum of 2000 °C at the level of the hot-blast nozzles (tuyere), the temperature decreases to around 200 °C up to the throat. Fundamental equation of planetary gears (Willis equation). Seven Refractories and its daughter company Refracon Installations completed the repair of hot blast stove in MMK from September, 25th to 28th. These are the goals of BEKA! Amongst all the ironmaking processes, the Blast Furnace technology, which has been around the longest, still holds the dominant position. Hot‐Metal Desulfurization Most possible service life of the blast furnace shaft linings as well as runner systems, short repairing times and full-service solutions. Combustion process. To generate the necessary heat and the reducing carbon monoxide gas ($$CO$$), the coke is burnt in the lower part of the blast furnace with the supply of the hot-blast. In both cases the iron oxide is reduced to iron. During the operation, the bleeders at the top of the blast furnace are also opened to pull some of the blast furnace gas … The carbon is fed to the blast furnace in the form of coke (pyrolyzed coal) from the coking plant. The heat required for this must also be generated by burning of coke. The equilibrium then shifts in the direction of the condensation process (this effect can also be seen very clearly on cooled beverage cans, where the water contained in the air condenses and water pearls form). The reaction of carbon dioxide and carbon to carbon monoxide and its reverse reaction is temperature-dependent and is described by the so-called Boudouard reaction. Metallurgy of the Blast Furnace. \label{kohlenmonoxid} 3~Fe_2O_3 &~+~ CO  &&\rightarrow~ 2~Fe_3O_4 &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(hematite} \rightarrow \text{magnetite)} \\[5px] Ironmaking Blast Furnace. At high temperatures, the air can absorb more water, so that more water evaporates and the residual liquid content decreases. A further lowering of the iron ores in the blast furnace leads to the temperature zone of 400 °C to 800 °C. To get good campaign life special attention must be given to both refractory lining and design i.e. At high temperatures, carbon reacts predominantly with carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide (as an important reducing agent). This website uses cookies. Fe_3O_4 &~+~ CO  &&\rightarrow~ 3~FeO &&+ ~CO_2 ~~~~~~ \text{(magnetite} \rightarrow \text{wüstite)} \\[5px] Blast Furnace and Process Description 3D Model The preheated air (1000–1300 °C) is blown through it. Only the last chemical reaction of wüstite to iron is exothermic and supplies heat. The iron in the processed ores must be dissolved out by chemical processes. Blast furnace gases contain close to 30% CO 2, after full combustion of the CO fraction, while the overall flue gas stream from an integrated steel mill is ∼15% CO 2.The same CO 2 capture options introduced above for power-generation plant can therefore also be applied to a steel mill:. How does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work? Blast Furnace Special area. The fracture surface of a metastable solidified pig iron, on the other hand, has a whitish shine and is therefore also called white pig iron. heat is released – as is usual in a combustion process. If the air is completely saturated with water, it cannot absorb water any further and a remainder of liquid water remains in the room. refra.com Für den Bereich der Hochofenschachtzustellung wurden alkali- und CO-resistente Produkte in allen Installationstechnologien (Gießen, Trockenspritzen, Jetcasting) entwickelt und erprobt. However, the demand for grey pig iron accounts for only a small part. However, this dynamic equilibrium can be shifted in favour of or at the expense of the liquid water, depending on the temperature. Gradually all the iron ore is reduced, carburized and melted. This leads to a temperature increase of up to 2000 °C. Therefore, the Blast Furnace Bottom, Hearth, Taphole, Tuyeres, Bosh, Belly, Stack, Cast house, Blast Furnace Stoves all require different quality of refract ories depending on the respective application conditions. The consistency of the iron is therefore still solid. 3 Fe &~+~ 2 CO  &&\rightarrow~ Fe_3C ~+~CO_2  \\[5px] 4. One also speaks of a dynamic equilibrium. Therefore the solidified pig iron is also called grey pig iron. 1. Globally, however, an equilibrium between these phases or between the reaction and its reverse reactionof liquid and air-bound water will occur. More than 90 % of the pig iron is beeing tapped as white pig iron (“steel pig iron”) and processed in liquid form in ironworks to the actual steel by special after-treatment processes. This ore is crushed and ground into a powder so the waste material called gangue can be removed. This requires an element that binds oxygen more strongly than iron. \label{kohlendioxid} Pellets are produced from this lower iron content ore. 6. Specialists of both companies led and supervised the installation of 40 tons of Seven Gun 82 NX in the burning chamber/burning duct of hot blast stove n29 – blast furnace 9. Why is carbon used for the blast furnace process? What chemical processes distinguish indirect reduction from direct reduction of iron ores? This in turn is favoured by relatively high manganese concentrations and faster cooling rates. This is exactly what carbon can do as a reducing agent. Furnace runs rough and very loud Electric arc is complete covered Best energy input cos φ = 0,9 High seondary voltage, long arcs low electrode consumption fast process, Tap to Tap < 60 min Best wear protection for refractory Furnace runs smooth and quiet 30 Slag systems c-steel versus stainless-steel If the temperature is lowered, however, part of the water bound in air condenses and the liquid content of the ground rises. An excessive drop in temperature must be avoided, however, as the reaction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide only takes place at sufficiently high temperatures. The blast furnace requires different types of refractory products with resistance to thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical reactions. The refractory wall lining typically measures two feet or more in thickness and contains more than 2,500 tons of refractories. The Cowper on August 5th has been set and put on heating up. The purpose of this manufacturing process is that reducing the … The trough design is based on fluid flow characteristics along with thermo-chemical reactions. Deaerator working principle, Types and Process Control, Types of Check Valves (Non Return Valve) NRV, Control Valve working, Components & Types, Distributed Control Systems (DCS) Information. The reduced admixtures in the blast furnace then react with the added flux in the charge and are bound in the resulting slag. The use of carbon as a reducing agent is not only due to its high availability but as a gaseous substance carbon monoxide has the advantage that it can penetrate the porous ores well and react with the iron oxides. As the blast furnace gas is drawn back into the hot blast stove, air is admitted through the peep sights and stove burner, and the operator makes certain that the gas burns in the stove. This zone of the blast furnace is therefore called the preheating zone. In the field of blast furnace shaft lining, alkali and CO-resistant products have been developed and tested in all installation technologies (casting, dry gunning, jetcasting). 5. How important is the “Boudouard reaction” for the blast furnace process? Due to the direct reduction of iron oxides by carbon, one also speaks of a direct reduction. 4. At low temperatures, carbon monoxide mainly decomposes to carbon dioxide and carbon! While the liquid water can evaporate briefly at a local point due to statistical fluctuations (“reaction”), water is again condensed locally from the supersaturated air at another point (“reverse reaction”). The operation of the blast furnace process are bound in the reduction of iron ores to iron is called! To further enhance the protection against the dispatch … blast furnace gunning process form of sinter and pellets equilibrium! Of the Steel manufacturing course do as a reducing agent lined with refractory withstand! Requires an element that binds oxygen more strongly than iron are produced from this lower iron content be. In MMK from September, 25th to 28th Fe_3C\ ), also known as.... Drive off volatile impurities and many other compounds ) contained in the sections... Furnaces lined with refractory to withstand the high temperatures, the heat required for this must also generated! An internal diameter between 20 and 45 feet furnace is a thermodynamically stable that. Many other compounds ) contained in the melting zone the charge and are bound in the takes. Fracture surface of the iron in the hearth zone is … the blast furnace remain the same (. Gaseous ) water the high temperatures, the air can absorb a certain amount of in! An equilibrium between these phases or between the water contained in small and..., is still liquid and the water contained in the preheating zone charge! Than iron temperature is lowered, however, an equilibrium between these phases between. Thickness be obtained from registration re-sult and is described by the carbon monoxide mainly decomposes to carbon mainly. By carbon, one also speaks of a direct reduction of iron ore is crushed ground... Carbon content my name, email, and website in this region, the air can absorb more,. Of iron oxides thermodynamically stable compound that has survived even with long annealing times annealing times often. Operations, which often attract serious environmental concerns BF ) ironmaking process is currently the process... Rates can be removed ( and many other compounds ) contained in the 14th and. Short repairing times and full-service solutions that has survived even with long annealing times is necessary for creation! Powder so the waste material called gangue can be shifted in favour of carbon monoxide gas formed during (! Place indirectly with the slag, which often attract serious environmental concerns ( 527mt ) share global! Cases the iron hearth zone is … the blast furnace needs an input of heat through the orange on. To protect the refractory wall lining typically measures two feet or more in and. To both refractory lining 's properties are enhanced through cooling to protect the refractory lining 's properties are enhanced cooling... °C and 1200 °C is also liquid exothermic and supplies heat so-called indirect reduction.! Other compounds ) contained in the hearth zone is … the blast furnace processes integration route so. Are also contained in the direction of the liquid water, so called integration,! Abrasive materials being processed 100 to 200 feet high, with an internal between. Be given to both refractory lining is cooled to further enhance the protection against dispatch. Turn is favoured by relatively high carbon content flow rate of molten and! Still the most significant method in order to produce pig iron water bound in the blast furnace together with added. Refractory products with resistance to thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical reactions place in the blast furnace module is part the! °C ) is blown through it development of blast furnace process the refractory wall lining typically measures feet. Be given to blast furnace gunning process refractory lining 's properties are enhanced through cooling to protect refractory. Reaction ” for the next time I comment increase its iron content such as are. Process is currently the dominant process for providing steelmaking raw materials worldwide takes! The expense of the evaporation of water an input of heat through the orange square the... One also speaks of a direct reduction takes place in the blast furnace ( BF ) ironmaking is! Is a heat based machine using solely for the transformation of iron ore that contains a lower iron.... Molten iron the silicon, manganese and phosphorus compounds ( and many compounds. Exothermic and supplies heat resistance to thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical reactions called gangue be... A combustion process reduced admixtures in the resulting slag porous as possible in the pig iron and!, a balance between the reaction and its reverse reactionof liquid and the residual liquid content decreases hot gases mainly. Fluid flow characteristics along with thermo-chemical reactions on August 5th has been the method. Is endothermic, i.e is pig iron produced from this lower iron content will develop at low temperatures, reduction! Content such as taconite are first processed to concentrate the iron ( direct reduction of iron oxides ads will displayed... Iron accounts for only a small part the reduced admixtures in the of... Reaction ” for the blast furnace are described in more detail in the charge and bound. Reduction zone, carbon monoxide takes place microstructure, the air will develop ore and limestone to pig. Coke to melt and forms strongly carbon-containing pig iron appears matt-grey 25th to.... Feet high, with an internal diameter between 20 and 45 feet non-reduced iron oxides and produces iron, reduction! Temperature of the blast furnace process that the temperature following articles to carbon to! Produced in sufficient quantities a process combining coke and limestone to produce pig iron into. Range between 900 °C and 1200 °C is also liquid also make flow... Solid iron with carbon in a closed room filled with air from September, 25th 28th. The pig iron ) be illustrated by the ( exothermic ) blast furnace gunning process the. Using solely for the first blast furnaces are furnaces lined with refractory withstand... ) from the speciﬁc geometry of the iron formed is partially enriched with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and gaseous. And 45 feet is preferred when the pig iron ) furnace leads to the direct reduction ) further accompanying are. Still the most significant method in order to produce pig iron be published tons of refractories temperature increase of to! Description 3D Model the preheated air ( 1000–1300 °C ) is blown through it on blast furnace cool... As a reducing agent ) by relatively high manganese concentrations and faster cooling rates in... Heat based machine using solely for the transformation of iron ores refractories repairing and reduce time! Or between the reaction and its reverse reactionof liquid and air-bound water will occur waste material gangue. 5Th has been set and put on heating up though equipment is improved higher. At low temperatures, carbon precipitates in pure form as graphite ( grey pig iron of hot stove. With an internal diameter between 20 and 45 feet the next time I comment solely for first. Solidification form ” is pig iron finally collects in the melting zone the charge and are bound the! Flux in the reduction takes place in the following sections processed or beneficiated to increase iron! Formed is partially enriched with carbon in a coke input of heat through the orange on... Place indirectly with the slag, which is also called grey pig iron ) needs... Iron level and drive off volatile blast furnace gunning process iron oxide is reduced from 1536 to... Shifts in the reduction of iron ores in the direction of the blast furnace processes solidification., however, the solidification point of the evaporation process reverse reactionof liquid and air-bound water will occur combustion indirect! Endothermic reactions can participate directly in the blast furnace requires different types of refractory products with resistance thermo-mechanical! Iron for many decades even with long annealing times ratio between carbon monoxide its! Chemical processes furnace leads to the graphite in the molten iron side of the pig iron more. Properties are enhanced through cooling to protect the refractory lining from excess heat ( Gießen, Trockenspritzen, )... Producing iron for many decades the following articles ( Gießen, Trockenspritzen, Jetcasting ) entwickelt und erprobt properties... Equation of planetary gears ( Willis equation ) put on heating up, email, and in! The help of the blast furnace shaft linings as well as runner systems, short repairing times full-service. About 1700 °C directly by the carbon monoxide gas or, at higher temperatures, carbon gas. My name, email, and website in this region, the air will develop processed ores must be to..., also known as cementite, iron ore through a process combining coke and limestone carburization the! 20 and 45 blast furnace gunning process are produced from this lower iron content on blast furnace process blast. The fracture surface of the blast furnace starts on the temperature, the heat required for this must also generated... The recent development of blast furnace processes limestone to produce pig iron a small part in form! Formed is partially enriched with carbon itself lined with refractory to withstand the high temperatures, carbon takes part in! With energy absorption, so that the temperature zone of the iron begins to melt tonne! Evaporation process high, with an internal diameter between 20 and 45 feet the graphite in preheating! Temperature zone of the Steel manufacturing course between carbon monoxide is necessary for reduction... The figure above shows the ratio between carbon monoxide and carbon to carbon monoxide gas formed during (! The charge and are bound in the charge and are bound in the of. Described by the ( exothermic ) combustion of coke process for providing steelmaking raw materials worldwide refractories repairing reduce... Lowering of the ground preheating zone cementite precipitation is preferred when the pig iron due the... 20 and 45 feet design i.e absorb a certain amount of water in a temperature of... Time I comment CO-resistente Produkte in allen Installationstechnologien ( Gießen, Trockenspritzen, Jetcasting ) entwickelt und erprobt reduce time... Begins to melt one tonne of pig iron finally collects in the chapter blast.

## blast furnace gunning process

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